What is IGBT: IGBT
scientific name is insulated gate bipolar transistor, which is composed of BJT and MOSFETCompound Power Semiconductor Devices
. BJT refers to bipolar diode and MOSFET refers to metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. The main uses include voltage/current frequency conversion, voltage transformation, phase change, rectification, inversion, switching, etc. The performance is better than MOSFET, but the disadvantage is that it is expensive.
Power semiconductor devices: According to the control type, it can be divided into uncontrollable type and semi-controllable type , Three types of full control products.
2.IGBT classification: IGBT
s can be classified intoIGBT discrete device, IGBT module and IPM
Three categories of products: IGBT
discrete device refers to a device composed of an IGBT
single tube and an anti-parallel diode. The IGBT
module refers to the assembly of multiple IGBT
chips and diode chips on the DBC substrate in an insulating manner for modular packaging. IPM: Intelligent power module, which is a "combination" device that integrates power devices and peripheral circuits such as drive circuits, overvoltage and overcurrent protection circuits, temperature monitoring and overtemperature protection circuits.We usually talk about IGBT modules, which account for more than half of the three categories.
3. Downstream applications:
① Classification: According to voltage classification, IGBT
s can be divided into ultra-low voltage, low voltage, medium voltage and high voltage. The low-voltage side mainly includes electric welding machines, home appliances (inverter air conditioners, washing machines, refrigerators, dishwashers, induction cookers), electric vehicles (hybrid, pure electric, etc.), UPS, solar cells, wind power, etc. Medium voltage mainly includes UPS, subway/urban rail motor drive, wind power, and solar cells. High voltage mainly includes track traction (high-speed rail, EMU), power grid, and large-scale industrial equipment. ②Proportion of value volume: New energy automobile automotive IGBT
market share continues to grow, and in 2020, it has become China's IGBT
The largest application area, accounting for about 30%. The industrial control, consumer electronics (home appliances) and new energy power generation markets accounted for 27%, 22% and 11% respectively. Smart grid accounts for 6%, rail transit accounts for 4%, and the latter two will not have much growth. The highest demand growth lies in new energy vehicles and new energy power generation. New energy power generation mainly includes photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation. According to Omdia, QYResearch and other multi-party data calculations,The compound growth rate of new energy vehicle IGBTs from 2020 to 2024 is expected to be 17%, and new energy power generation will exceed 10%, which is one of the most important logics for hyping IGBTs. 4. The main downstream demand growth end: Due to the rapid explosion of new energy vehicles and the explosion of photovoltaic and wind power driven by carbon neutrality, the IGBT production capacity cannot keep up with the demand, and there is a serious shortage of goods, especially the IGBT modules that the inverter needs to use. Supply is in short supply, and it is one of the chip segments with relatively fast growth and clear demand. According to current data, the growth of new energy vehicles and new energy power generation has exceeded the forecast of securities companies.The new energy power generation IGBT market has become a trend, and IGBTs under energy storage and charging piles are becoming the next trend. ①New energy vehicles: From the perspective of the cost of new energy electric vehicles, the components that account for a large proportion are batteries, motors, electronic control systems, electric drive components, etc. to 40%, 15%, 12%, 8%. As the core component of the electronic control system, the IGBT module accounts for about 30-40% of the cost of the electronic control system, plus other rough estimatesIGBT modules account for about 7-10% of the vehicle cost. According to the EVtank data cited in the Macro Micro Technology prospectus, the size of China's new energy vehicle IGBT market in 2019 is 3.6 billion yuan, and the estimated value of new energy vehicle IGBT bicycles is about 2985 yuan per vehicle. According to Infineon data, the value of power semiconductor devices in new energy vehicles is about the same as that of traditional fuel vehiclesmore than 5 times, and IGBT is the largest proportion of power semiconductor devices. Domestic sales of new energy vehicles continued to increase month-on-month for several months. Domestic sales in September reached 357,000 units, up 11.22% month-on-month and 158.81% year-on-year. ②Charging piles: From the cost structure of charging piles, chargers . The charging module is the core equipment for charging. The charging module accounts for nearly 50% of the cost of the charging system. Its core function is to convert the alternating current in the power grid into direct current that can charge the battery. The key of the charging module is the IGBT power switch. When the charging module is working, the three-phase alternating current is rectified and filtered, and then the DC input voltage is supplied to the IGBT bridge. In the DC charging pile, IGBT is the core part, accounting for 20% of the total cost. As China's new energy vehicle market is the largest, the number of new charging piles added each year is also the largest in the world. The vehicle-to-pile ratio planned by the state is 1:1, but it is still far from being achieved. Super fast charging is the future trend, and the realization of high-power fast charging must be inseparable from power components such as IGBTs. ③New energy power generation: represented by wind power. Since the electric energy output by new energy power generation does not meet the requirements of the grid, it needs to be rectified into direct current through photovoltaic inverters or wind power inverters, and then converted into alternating current that meets the requirements of the grid, and then input to the grid.IGBT module is the core device of photovoltaic inverter and wind power inverter. According to the prospectus of Macro Micro Technology, IGBT modules account for 10%~15% of the inverter value, and the estimated value of IGBTs in 2019~2020 is 20-23 million yuan/GW. It is expected that with the gradual increase in the production scale of string inverters, the manufacturing cost per GW of the inverter will decrease, and the value of IGBTs per GW will also decrease. Photovoltaic installed capacity continued to exceed expectations, with 22.05GW installed from January to August, a year-on-year increase of 45%. ④Energy storage: One of the important devices in the energy storage system isEnergy storage converter is generally called energy storage inverter for household energy storage, and is generally called PCS in the field of large-scale industrial and commercial energy storage. A device that realizes bidirectional conversion of electrical energy between the battery and the grid. The energy storage converter can not only invert the direct current in the energy storage battery to alternating current, and transmit it to the power grid; it can also rectify the alternating current in the power grid into direct current to charge the energy storage system. Brokerages generally predict that the 5-year compound growth of demand for energy storage converters will exceed 50%, while IGBTs areOne of the core components of the energy storage converter, but there are also ones that do not use IGBT.
⑤Others: Frequency conversion white goods, one of the core components of white goods with frequency conversion function is its internal "frequency converter", and the IGBT module is the core component of the frequency converter, and frequency conversion is the first choice for energy saving and environmental protection. It mainly includes inverter air conditioners, inverter refrigerators, and inverter washing machines. Among them, inverter refrigerators have the largest growth space, and the current penetration rate is only 22%.
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